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Lub Era ntawm Graphene Tau Tsis Tau Txog

Tab sis nws tau yug rau kaum xyoo, kuv lub xov tooj txawb ntawm qhov twg?

Qhov tseeb, xyoo 2012, Konstantin Novoselov, leej twg tau txais Nobel Prize rau graphene, thiab nws cov npoj yaig luam tawm ib tsab xov xwm ntawm "Xwm" los tham txog yav tom ntej ntawm graphene, ob xyoos ntawm txoj kev loj hlob Tseem pov thawj ntawm lawv twv. Nws ntseeg hais tias raws li cov ntaub ntawv, graphene "lub neej yav tom ntej yog qhov kaj lug, txoj kev yog tortuous", tab sis nws yuav ua si lub luag hauj lwm tseem ceeb nyob rau hauv lub neej yav tom ntej, tab sis ua ntej ob peb yam teeb meem los kov yeej, qhov no scene yuav tsis tuaj. Ntau qhov tseem ceeb, kev xav txog cov nqi loj ntawm kev tsim rov qab, cov txiaj ntsim ntawm graphene yuav tsis txaus los ua nws tsuas hloov cov cuab yeej tam sim no - nws txoj kev muaj tseeb tiag, tej zaum vim nws txawv nta tshwj xeeb tsim cov ntawv thov

Dab tsi yog graphene kawg?

Graphene yog thawj cov ntaub ntawv uas yuav tsum muaj los ntawm ib txheej txheej atoms. Cov atom atoms yog sib txuas rau hauv hws hlais meshes. Tus mem hluav nrog graphite yog sib npaug ntawm ntau cov txheej txheem ntawm graphene stacked ua ke, thiab cov nanotubes cov xim muaj dov rau hauv lub raj. Graphite, graphene, carbon nanotubes thiab globin.

Vim yog cov tshuaj sib kis ntawm carbon atoms, graphene yog kev ncaj ncees: muaj peev xwm khoov mus rau lub kaum ntse ntse loj loj tsis muaj kev tawg, tab sis kuj tawm tsam kev siab. Thiab vim hais tias tsuas yog ib txheej ntawm atoms, hluav taws xob lub zog tsuas yog siv rau ib lub dav hlau, nws coj ib qho tshiab hluav taws xob khoom. Graphene yog pob tshab hauv pom lub teeb, tab sis airtight. Cov nta no ua rau nws haum haum li raw khoom siv rau kev tiv thaiv thiab cov khoom hluav taws xob. Tab sis haum rau sab xis, yeej tsis tuaj yoo li ntawd.

Ib qho ntawm cov lus nug: qhov kev npaj ua ntej. Ntau yam ntawm cov kev tshawb fawb qhia peb txog cov yam ntxwv zoo ntawm graphene, tab sis muaj ib qho cuab. Cov nta zoo tshaj plaws yog xav tau ntawm cov qauv zoo. Yuav kom tau qhov zoo tshaj plaws ntawm cov khoom siv hluav taws xob thiab cov khoom siv hluav taws xob ntawm cov qauv graphene, qhov yuav tsum tau siv sij hawm ntau tshaj plaws thiab kim txhais tau tias: kev siv kho tshuab - nrog nplaum nplaum rau ntawm graphite, cov khoom sib txuas ntawm graphene. Tsis txhob luag, Novo Shawlov hauv xyoo 2004 lawv thiaj tau npaj graphene.

Txawm hais tias cov cuab yeej yuav tsum tau ua thiab cov ntsiab lus yuav zoo li tsis muaj, tab sis qhov teeb meem yog qhov kawm tau zoo tsawg dua, tau qee cov qauv ua kev tshawb fawb kuj, kev tsim muaj? Cuav xwm. Rau industrialization, qhov no txhais tau tias tsis siv. Txawm hais tias koj tau ua tiav lub ntiaj teb lub graphite kuv, ib hnub tau tev tau ob peb daim ... ... tau kawg peb muaj ntau txoj hau kev ntxiv kom txo tau thiab txo cov nqi - qhov teeb meem yog tias cov hau kev ntawm qhov khoom zoo thiab Caij nplooj zeeg. Peb muaj kua stripping txoj kev: lub graphite los yog cov khoom sib xws carbonaceous mus rau qhov chaw nro ntawm ultra-high kua, thiab tom qab ntawd ultrasonic bombing ntawm graphene snowflake sib sib zog nqus. Peb muaj ib txoj kev ua kom tsis muaj pa tshuaj: cia cov pa roj carbon dioxide nyob rau hauv qhov chaw siv tooj liab, qhov tsim ntawm graphene nyias txheej thiab ces stripped. Peb muaj ib txoj kev loj hlob zoo, nyob nruab nrab ntawm ob txheej ntawm silicon ncaj qha mus sim ua kom loj hlob ib txheej ntawm graphene. Kuj tseem muaj cov tshuaj redox txoj kev, los ntawm txoj hlua pa oxygen cais cov ntawv sau graphite, thiab lwm yam. Muaj ntau txoj kev, tab sis kuj muaj lawv tus kheej cov ntaub ntawv, tab sis kom deb li deb tsis tau tiag tiag rau loj-scale industrialization ntawm industrial ntau lawm technology.

Vim li cas thiaj ua tsis tau cov hau kev no ua kom muaj qhov zoo graphene? Piv txwv. Txawm hais tias lub hauv paus ntawm ib daim duab graphene yog ib lub suab nrov zoo nkauj rau cov tub ntxhais hluas, nws feem ntau cuam tshuam ntawm ntug kev thiab ua ib lub ntsej muag tsib-xya los ua ke. Qhov no tsis zoo heev, tab sis cov tshuaj vapor deposition method ua "ib thooj" ntawm graphene tsis yog tiag tiag tiav, los ntawm ib txoj kev loj hlob ntawm ib. Nws yog ib qho tseem ceeb ntawm tib lub sij hawm qhov kev loj hlob ntawm "polycrystalline", thiab tsis muaj ib txoj kev los xyuas kom meej tias cov ntsiab lus no loj hlob ntawm cov me me yuav ua tau mus zoo ib yam. Yog li, cov voj kab no tsis yog muab faib rau ntawm ntug, tab sis kuj muaj nyob hauv txhua "ib" ua qhov no tawm ntawm lub graphene, ua ib qho kev tsis muaj zog, yooj yim tawg. Zuj zus tseem, qhov kev nrauj ntawm graphene tsis zoo li polycrystalline co, thiab yuav mus cuag nws txhua lub sijhawm. Qhov tshwm sim yog tias lub zog ntawm tag nrho cov graphene yog halved. Khoom siv yog thaj chaw teeb meem, xws li ntses thiab dais lub paw tsis yog ua tsis tau, tab sis yeej tsis yog li ntawd.


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